**Introduction**

A hypothesis is used in the thesis or dissertation for the purpose of the research process in order to get effective results from the research conducted for the thesis or dissertation. Hypothesis provides the prediction about the research that will be discovered in the future.

A hypothesis is a foundational element in scientific research, which serves as a testable prediction about the relationship between variables that are involved in the hypothesis. Hypothesis guides the research process by providing a clear statement that can be evaluated through experiments and data collection, ultimately contributing to scientific knowledge and understanding.

**Hypothesis**

The hypothesis states the prediction of the researcher about his research that research will find in the future. The hypothesis is also known as an assumption, or some idea that is proposed by the researcher and the assumption or idea will be tested. This assumption is based on some of the evidence and is also known as the initial or starting point of any investigation that helps to translate the questions of the research project into predictions.

A statement that can be tested through scientific research by the researcher is known as a hypothesis. If an individual or researcher wants to test the relationship between two or more variables, then it is essential to write a hypothesis before the start of data collection and experiments on that research.

*Figure 1: Hypothesis*

There are almost two types of variables involved in the hypothesis: one is known as the independent variable, and the other is the dependent variable. Independent variables are those variables that are controlled by the researcher and can be changed by the researcher. On the other hand, dependent variables are those variables that are dependent on other variables and change according to them.

These variables are only observed and measured by the researcher. There are various characteristics of a hypothesis, which include that the hypothesis should be concise and clear. If there is a relational hypothesis, then the relationship between several variables is defined in the hypothesis. The explanation of the hypothesis is simple and specific, and there is also the scope for conducting more tests. There are several types of hypotheses, including simple hypotheses, complex hypotheses, directional hypotheses, empirical hypotheses, null hypotheses and associative hypotheses.

*Figure 2: Types of Hypotheses*

**Research Hypothesis**

The research hypothesis is a statement that helps to introduce a research question and provide expected results or outcomes of the under-observation study. Research hypothesis is an important part of the scientific method because it is helpful and essential for the construction of scientific experiments related to the research.

Therefore, it is effective and very careful when building a research hypothesis because it acts as a starting point for the scientific experiment. If there is a minor mistake or flaw in the hypothesis, then it will lead to adverse effects on the experiments that are based on your research. There is a strong convention that the hypothesis should be written in two forms; the first form is the null hypothesis, which provides a statement that is contrary to the hypothesis. The other form is the alternative hypothesis, which is actually known as the experimental hypothesis when the investigation method is called an experiment.

**Characteristics of Effective Research Hypothesis**

There are various characteristics of an effective hypothesis, and some of these characteristics and qualities of an effective research hypothesis are explained as follows. For the effective explanation of the characteristics of the research hypothesis, the following hypothesis is considered below, and then it becomes easy to explain all these characteristics.

Hypothesis: Students who sleep almost 8 hours in the night on average have the ability to achieve maximum grades on the tests compared to those students who sleep less than 8 hours per night.

An effective research hypothesis should be clear and accurate about all the variables that are involved in the hypothesis and also provide effective outcomes that describe the relationship between all the involved variables and groups. The above-provided hypothesis is clear and specific about the involved variables, which are test grades and sleep hours; the parties that are involved in the hypothesis are two groups of students who sleep for 8 hours and who do not sleep for 8 hours.

An effective research hypothesis requires more effort than just a guess about the specific outcome. An effective characteristic of the hypothesis starts with the question that is also explored through the background research. Another effective characteristic of a research hypothesis is that it should be very clear and concise about what is being accessed, and it should also be very specific about the outcome of the hypothesis that is expected.

*Figure SEQ Figure 3*

*Qualities of Research Hypothesis*

Another effective characteristic of a research hypothesis is that the hypothesis should be testable, and there should be an effective way to prove the statement through the experiment. If the statement is not testable, then it should not be considered a research hypothesis. The above-provided hypothesis is testable through the quantitative study that involves two groups of students who sleep for 8 hours and who do not sleep for 8 hours. After the test, there should be a comparison between the grades of these students and find if there is any difference between the grades of these students.

An effective and testable hypothesis is also described as the researcher should be able to observe and collect the effective data that is used in the scientific method for testing purposes. The research hypothesis should not be formulated in the form of a question. The effective research hypothesis is not against any rule or law of nature. An accurate research hypothesis describes only one issue, and this hypothesis can be in several forms, including descriptive or relational form. One of the last effective characteristics of a research hypothesis is that it should specify the relationship of different variables that are involved in the hypothesis.

**Alternative Hypothesis**

The alternative hypothesis describes the prediction of your research, the effects of the research, and the relationship between the variables involved in the research. An alternative hypothesis is the opposite theory of the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis is usually the same as the research or scientific hypothesis that will describe the claims or expectations that will be true that are explained in the hypothesis. Both null and alternative hypotheses help to cover every possible outcome of the hypothesis.

*Figure 4: Alternative Hypothesis *

**Null Hypothesis**

A null hypothesis is a hypothesis that provides a statement that is against the hypothesis. The

*Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 5: Null Hypothesis*

null hypothesis is also considered a negative statement about the hypothesis. This type of hypothesis has no relationship between the variables that are involved in the research. In simple words, if the hypothesis describes that there is an effective relationship between the variables that are involved in the hypothesis, then the null hypothesis describes that there is no relationship between the variables that are involved in the hypothesis.

**Conclusion **

The conclusion is drawn that a well-formulated hypothesis is important for guiding scientific research. The research hypothesis serves as a foundation for designing experiments and validating predictions about the relationship between different variables that are involved in the hypothesis.

An effective hypothesis should be clear, specific, testable, and based on prior research. Distinguishing between null and alternative hypotheses ensures a comprehensive exploration of potential outcomes. Properly constructed hypotheses facilitate meaningful and accurate scientific investigations, which help to advance the knowledge and understanding of the hypothesis.